Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Bystander Effect Essay Example for Free

Bystander Effect Essay Introduction – This study researched the implications of the bystander effect when both gaze and no gaze methods were used. It tested this with woman to woman interaction only. The belief was that when gaze was held between the subject needing assistance and a random subject the expressed desire to help would raise. Methods Participants – For participants the study used one hundred and ten adult American women waiting alone at a bus stop in Staten Island, New York. Apparatus/Materials – two women dressed in plain clothes, a pocket full of change, and conducted at a bus stop. Procedures – Two women dressed in plain clothes or one woman alone approached a bus stop where a solitary other woman already was(the subject) one of the women had a cast on her dominant hand. The woman with the impairment reached into her pocket on the side of her casted hand with the opposite hand and attempted to draw coins from the pocket. Upon doing this she dropped the coins over the sidewalk. After the coins had fallen she either made eye contact with the subject or just proceeded to pick up the coins. If the subject assisted in picking up the coins or helped identify where the coins were she was considered helpful. IV – the woman dropping the coins DV – whether or not the subject assisted in picking up or finding the coins. Results – In the gaze versus no gaze condition with a companion 70% of the subjects assisted rather than 30% that assisted when no gaze was used. When no- gaze was used and tested alone versus with companion a significant difference was seen. 33% helped when the person in need of help was alone as opposed to 11% when with a companion. Discussion – this research shows that a subject can feel increased responsibility when someone else is in the vicinity and gaze is held rather than when the subject is alone and gaze is held versus gaze not being held. A possible answer for his is that when two or more people are around and someone in distress makes eye contact they are showing a distinct desire for that person rather than the other people around who they could ask for assistance. This makes a subject feel more responsible to help rather than if they would have not made eye contact because the distressee is asking indirectly for help. The difference in between look and non- look while alone was less significant because the bystander already seemingly had a sole responsibility to help and not expect someone else to and so looking at them wasn’t as much asking them specifically rather than a plea for help. Limitations – the person in need of help could be asking for different amount of help with just there facial expressions. Certain females may prefer other females more than others and be more inclined to help. Future Research – this study can be held again but rather than having solely female to female interaction, male to female and female to male interaction can be had.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Apollo 13 Essay -- Apollo 13 Essays

Apollo 13 Questions 1.I’d first have to say that the head of mission control on the ground was definitely important in the salvaging of Apollo 13. He was faced with problem after problem yet he kept a somewhat level head through all of it and managed the engineers and other people involved back at Houston very well. Jim Lovell’s piloting skills played a rold in the crew’s survival as well. When he had to set the ship’s course for Earth manually it took a great deal of skill and patience and he deserves credit for that. Ken Mattingly might not have made it to space, but his extensive knowledge of the ins and outs of the spacecraft saved the lives of his friends when they had a power crisis. 2. One particular problem during the Apollo 13 mission was a build up of carbon dioxide in the spacecraft. The CO2 scrubbers designed to filter out the gas weren’t working properly and as time progressed and the astronauts breathed more the situation worsened. To solve this problem NASA pooled together some engineers to come up with a design for a makeshift filter using common items onboard the space craft and an existing filter from another section of the spacecraft. 3. The general public and the press seemed disinterested with the Apollo 13 mission. Since we’d already beaten the Russians to the moon, no one in the general public put much interest into NASA anymore. The space race was decided and the public lost interest in NASA With no audience for the story, the...

Monday, January 13, 2020

Marble Chip Investigation Essay

Fair Test To make it a fair test and make my results more accurate I will try and keep all variables constant except the concentration of the acid. This will include weighing the marble chips every time and trying to use lumps of roughly the same size to keep the surface area fairly constant as a change in surface area will affect the rate of reaction. I will try and avoid a change in temperature and I will use the same equipment throughout the tests. Each concentration will be repeated at least once to improve accuracy as an average can be taken. Research The rate of reaction depends upon two factors, the number of collisions within a time between the reactants, and the fraction of these collisions that are successful. Therefore, the higher the concentration of the reactants, the higher the rate of reaction because there will be an increased number of collisions, this is called collision theory. However, for the reaction between the two reactants to be successful, they must collide with enough energy to react, the energy needed to react is known as  activation energy. This can be shown on a graph like the one below, I believe this graph is similar to what the energy diagram would be for my investigation. This shows that my chemical reaction will be exothermic, therefore it will release more energy than it uses to react. Therefore, at a higher concentration, there will be more reactions releasing energy in the form of heat that will enable more particles to reach their activation energy level and react. This shows that the rate of reaction will increase with the concentration of acid. Prediction After having done some research I feel that I can make an education prediction concerning what will happen during my investigation. I predict that the higher the concentration of acid I use, the faster the rate of reaction will be. I think this because the higher the concentration is, the more acid particles there will be to collide with the marble chip with enough energy to cause a reaction as explained in collision theory. I also believe that the rate of reaction will increase with concentration of acid because the chemical reaction I am doing is an exothermic reaction. Therefore, it will release energy as the reactions take place, this will give more energy to other particles around it and will cause the reaction to speed up as more particles reach their activation energy and collide with enough energy to react. Preliminary test results I started with 10g of marble chip and 100cm3 of 2M acid, the reaction was too fast and could not be accurately measured. I then tried 3g of marble chip with the same amount of 2M acid (100cm3), this worked fine, however, when the 0.4M concentration was tested the reaction was too slow and could not be accurately measured due to our scale. I then tried 6g of marble chip and it gave 135 cm3 of CO2 with the 2M concentration and 5 cm3 of CO2 with the 0.4M concentration. I felt that this would give us a good range of results so I  stuck with those measurements based on my preliminary tests. Observations When we had done our experiment we realised that we could benefit from some tests with other concentrations of acid to increase accuracy. Therefore we decided to do tests with 1.8M, 1.4M, 1M, 0.6M and 0.2M acid. However, when we did these tests they produced a much higher volume of carbon  dioxide than we would expect from our previous results. I came to the conclusion that this would have to be down to a change in one of the variables. Looking at the variables it was possible that it could have been temperature or surface area of the marble chips that caused the change, but as there had not been any large change in these variables it was unlikely that they would have such a clear affect on the results. After doing a few tests I found that it was the acid that I was using that had affected the results, I had started on a new batch of acid as the previous bottle had run out. Even though both batches of acid were labelled as being 2M, it was clear that one was stronger than the other and therefore increased the rate of reaction as the chance of acid particles colliding with the marble chip had been increased as there were more acid particles. Due to this, I plotted there results as a separate line, however, the results still show the same pattern and are therefore still useful in concluding the relation between gas given off and the concentration of acid, as explained by collision theory. Conclusion As you can see on the graph, both lines go up in a smooth curve. This shows that there is a correlation between concentration of acid and the volume of gas given off. As the concentration of acid increases so does the volume of gas, therefore they are proportional. The gradient of the line gets steeper as the concentration increases, this means that there was a larger increase of gas produced between 1.6M and 2M, than there was between 0.4M and 0.8M, even though the increase in concentration of acid was 0.4M in both. The graph shows that at higher concentrations of acid, more carbon dioxide was produced but in the same amount of time. This shows that at higher concentrations, the rate of reaction must have been faster to produce more products in the same time period. This can be explained by collision theory and the ideas on activation energy that I explained in my research and prediction. In my prediction I said that more gas would be given off with a higher  concentration, these results show that I was correct. This is because due to collision theory, in a low concentration of acid the acid particles are spread far apart. This means that there is very little chance of acid particles colliding with the marble chip with enough energy to react. In a high concentration, the acid particles are closer together as there is more of them within the same volume. This means that there is a much higher chance of collision with the marble chip, and there is more energy due to the energy being produced by the reaction, which is exothermic, this causes the reaction to be faster. This can be seen in my results, the 2M acid gave an average of 134.75cm3 of carbon dioxide, where the 0.4M concentration only gave an average of 4cm3 of carbon dioxide. The rate of reaction is reduced by a decrease of particles within the same space. Evaluation Accuracy of results I feel that my experiment was accurate because the results made a smooth curve on my graph. I did have a problem with the 1.8M, 1.4M, 1M, 0.6M and 0.2M acid results, as the acid appeared to be stronger than it was labelled. However, I resolved this problem by plotting the results as a separate line on my graph and they still showed a very similar curve to the other one showing the same relation between concentration of acid and the volume of gas given off. This shows that it was probably just the concentration of the acid that caused the problem and not my execution of the experiment that caused the results to be slightly different than what was expected. I think that my results could have been better as there was some variation between my four results for each of 2M, 1.6M, 1.2M, 0.8M, and 0.4M. However I do not feel this problem is major as the variations were relatively small as is shown by the error margins drawn on my graph, but there is still room for improvement. Possible Improvements If I was to do this investigation again I would try and keep some of the variables constant that I had less control over. The investigation was carried out over a few days so the classroom temperature may have varied. This could have had a slight effect on the rate of reaction making my results less accurate. Although the marble chips were roughly the same size they weren’t all exactly the same shape. If I could find a way to make the marble chips all the same shape and size then the investigation would be fairer as the surface area of the marble chips would be constant. If I was to do this investigation again I would try and use only one batch of acid for the whole experiment because as I found out, the acid supplied isn’t always exactly the strength that it says it is. I would also try to use a more accurate piece of equipment to measure the volume of gas produced, using a measuring cylinder did not provide the best accuracy that was open to me. I could have achieved a higher level of accuracy with a buret.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

What Is an Elective

There are certain courses you need to take to fulfill the requirements for earning a diploma or a degree. These courses are usually stated very clearly in a curriculum or degree program requirements list. What Is an Elective? Courses that don’t fulfill a specific slot in a degree program requirement list are elective classes. Some degree programs contain a certain amount of elective credit hours, which means those programs allow students to enjoy some flexibility in a few areas and take classes that interest them—as long as those classes are offered at a certain level of difficulty. Many Choices For example, students majoring in English Literature may have the opportunity to take two upper-level elective courses from a Humanities department. Those courses could include anything from Art Appreciation to German History. Transfer Student? When students transfer from one school to another, they may find that many courses they’ve taken (for credit) actually transfer into the new school as elective credits. This happens if the second school doesn’t offer courses that the first school offered. The transferred courses simply don’t fit into any curriculum.